Journal of Pathology Informatics Journal of Pathology Informatics
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 42

Deep learning approaches and applications in toxicologic histopathology: Current status and future perspectives

1 Preclinical Safety, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA
2 Business Technology Solutions, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhupinder Bawa
Preclinical Safety, AbbVie Inc., 1 N Waukegan Rd, North Chicago, IL 60064
Dr. Shima Mehrvar
Preclinical Safety, AbbVie Inc., 1 N Waukegan Rd, North Chicago, IL 60064
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpi.jpi_36_21

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Whole slide imaging enables the use of a wide array of digital image analysis tools that are revolutionizing pathology. Recent advances in digital pathology and deep convolutional neural networks have created an enormous opportunity to improve workflow efficiency, provide more quantitative, objective, and consistent assessments of pathology datasets, and develop decision support systems. Such innovations are already making their way into clinical practice. However, the progress of machine learning - in particular, deep learning (DL) - has been rather slower in nonclinical toxicology studies. Histopathology data from toxicology studies are critical during the drug development process that is required by regulatory bodies to assess drug-related toxicity in laboratory animals and its impact on human safety in clinical trials. Due to the high volume of slides routinely evaluated, low-throughput, or narrowly performing DL methods that may work well in small-scale diagnostic studies or for the identification of a single abnormality are tedious and impractical for toxicologic pathology. Furthermore, regulatory requirements around good laboratory practice are a major hurdle for the adoption of DL in toxicologic pathology. This paper reviews the major DL concepts, emerging applications, and examples of DL in toxicologic pathology image analysis. We end with a discussion of specific challenges and directions for future research.

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